Poisition at LTHE Grenoble France

Category : position opening

CDD (12 mois) sur financement CNES « Mise en place d’un produit satellite temps-réel d’anomalie d’humidité du sol et de rendement des cultures en Afrique »

Laboratoire d’étude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (LTHE), Grenoble

La gestion des risques climatiques liés à la production agricole, demeure encore le principal défi en Afrique de l’Ouest. Ces risques incluent des précipitations irrégulières, de longues périodes de sècheresse, des débuts tardifs et fins précoces des saisons pluvieuses. Le changement climatique vient encore accentuer ces risques et rend le secteur agricole encore plus vulnérable (GIEC, 2013).

En Afrique de l’ouest, et particulièrement en zone sahélienne, le facteur limitant le rendement des cultures est la quantité d’eau disponible dans les sols (Churkina and Running, 1998). Le travail proposé dans le cadre du CDD consistera à utiliser les mesures micro-onde du satellite SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), disponibles depuis 6 ans, afin de proposer un produit opérationnel d’anomalie d’humidité du sol et de rendement des cultures en Afrique sahélienne. Les prédictions de rendements constituent un enjeu important pour tous les pays de la bande sahélienne où le centre AGRHYMET s’appuie sur ces prédictions pour déclencher si besoin la mise en place de l’aide alimentaire. La cartographie de ces prédictions peut également permettre le développement de produits d’assurances agricoles (assurances indicielles), qui sont de plus en plus considérés comme des outils d’adaptation au changement climatique. L’originalité de l’approche proposée consiste à se baser sur une mesure du contenu en eau du sol, qui constitue l’eau efficace pour la croissance des cultures, et non sur les taux de précipitations ou des indices de végétation plus fréquemment utilisés, les premiers n’étant pas toujours corrélés aux besoins effectifs de la végétation, et les deuxièmes trop peu sensibles à la productivité de grains de la plante.

Une chaine de traitement a été développée au LTHE à Grenoble. Le procédé consiste à assimiler les données du satellite SMOS dans un schéma de surface pour dresser des cartes d’humidité du sol à 5 cm de profondeur, puis à en déduire l’humidité à différentes profondeurs (30, 60, 90 cm). Ces cartes permettent ensuite de visualiser, pour une date donnée, les zones en excès ou en déficit d’eau. Les premiers résultats montrent qu’une connaissance de l’humidité du sol à 30 cm de profondeur est un très bon indicateur du rendement agricole du mil au Niger (Gibon et al., 2016).

Le travail du CDD consistera à rendre opérationnel la chaine de traitement afin que des cartes d’anomalies d’humidité du sol à différentes profondeurs soient disponibles sur internet en temps quasi-réel (5 jours de délai). Une mise en place sur une application mobile est également prévue. Dans un deuxième temps, le CDD devra mettre au point des relations statistiques entre l’humidité du sol et le rendement de différentes cultures. Enfin, une amélioration de la résolution spatiale des produits est souhaitée. Cette dernière étape nécessitera l’utilisation d’une mesure satellite supplémentaire de température de surface pour permettre de réduire la résolution de 25×25 km² à 1 km².

Le candidat devra disposer de solides connaissances en informatique (sous Linux), et des compétences en création de site web et applications mobiles.

Début du stage souhaité en novembre 2016. Rémunération sur la base IE du CNRS.

Contact : Thierry PELLARIN (thierry.pellarin@univ-grenoble-alpes.fr)

Références :

Gibon F., T. Pellarin, S. Traore, C. Baron, D. Lo Seen, A. Alhassane, Potential of Soil Moisture to monitor millet yield in Niger, from local to regional scale, submitted to IEEE Journal of selected topics in applied earth observations and remote sensing, 2016

Churkina, G., & Running, S.W. (1998). Contrasting climatic controls on the estimated productivity of global terrestrial biomes. Ecosystems, 1, 206-215

PhD or Postdoc Position in Satellite-Based Data Assimilation for Soil Moisture Estimation

Category : L4, position opening

Please note

On-line vacancy advertisement:
https://icts.kuleuven.be/apps/jobsite/vacatures/53807202

PhD or Postdoc Position in Satellite-Based Data Assimilation for Soil Moisture Estimation

Our team: http://ees.kuleuven.be/bwb/index.html

Soil moisture is a key variable in the water, energy and carbon cycle over land. The objective of this project is to merge large-scale land surface simulations with satellite-based microwave observations from the ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) missions, using an advanced data assimilation scheme which corrects for both the random and persistent errors in soil moisture estimates. The improved soil moisture time series will help enhancing subsequent predictions of flooding, landslides, soil and vegetation carbon, deeper groundwater and the atmospheric boundary layer.

We are searching for an enthusiastic researcher with a keen interest in land surface processes to implement advances to a global land surface data assimilation system. You will be part of the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Division Soil and Water Management, at the KU Leuven (Belgium), working under the supervision of prof. dr. ir. Gabrielle De Lannoy.

Profile
==========
- Master (for PhD position) or PhD (for postdoc position) degree in Hydrology, Civil or Environmental Engineering, Meteorology, Remotely Sensed Earth Observation, Physics, Mathematics, Computer Sciences, or equivalent
- Experience with data-processing applications such as Matlab/Python, IDL,GrADS, R, or other; interest in (for PhD position) or strong experience with (for postdoc position) programming and scientific computing
- Excellent motivation and grades
- Creative, critical, analytical and innovative mindset
- Ability to work independently
- Excellent written and oral communication skills in English

Offer
==========
- For PhD position: PhD scholarship for 4 years; support and training to PhD students through the Arenberg Doctoral School (https://set.kuleuven.be/phd)
- For postdoc position: 2-year position with a competitive salary; support in career development
- Multi-disciplinary and international professional environment
- Leuven is a charming historical university town, located in the heart of Western Europe

Interested?
==========
Applicants should submit their resume, along with a motivation letter and two names for possible references on-line. The starting date is October 1, 2016. For more information please contact prof. dr. ir. Gabrielle De Lannoy, tel.: +32 16 37 67 13, mail: gabrielle.delannoy@kuleuven.be.

You can apply for this job via the online application tool until September 1, 2016: http://www.kuleuven.be/eapplyingforjobs/light/53807202

Research Engineer ‘Sea Surface Salinity retrieval from SMOS satellite measurements’

Category : L2, position opening

A research engineer position is opened at the Laboratoire d’Océanographie et du Climat – Expérimentation et Approches Numériques (LOCEAN)/ Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), PARIS, starting as soon as possible. The position is for one year, likely renewable for 2 years.

Context :

The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission is the first satellite mission carrying an L-band radiometer interferometer. Since its launch, end of 2009, it acquired over 5 years of data that demonstrate the feasibility of the sea surface salinity measurement by L-band radiometry, the capability of the interferometry technique, and it opens new research topics. The LOCEAN team has been involved since 1999 in the definition of direct and inverse models applicable to SMOS. It is one of the ESA Expert Support Laboratory in charge of the definition of the algorithms used for retrieving salinity from SMOS brightness temperatures in the ESA operational chain. The selected candidate will be in charge of the improvement of existing algorithms, dealing in particular with data selection, configuration of the baysian retrieval, radiative transfer model, in close collaboration with researchers and engineers of the laboratory.

The selected candidate will join the LOCEAN IPSO (Interactions et Processus au sein de la couche de Surface Océanique) team involved in the physics of the L-band radiometry, in the satellite salinity validation and in understanding  the processes responsible for the differences observed between satellite and in situ measurements, in particular those linked  to air-sea interaction, vertical stratification and small-scale variability (www.locean-ipsl.upmc.fr/smos/ and siss.locean-ipsl.upmc.fr).

Work details :

- Developpement of new algorithms for improving the retrieval of the salinity from SMOS mission ; collaboration with the industrial for their implementation in the processor chain

- Relationship with other ESA expert support laboratory and with the company in charge of the evolutions and the maintenance of the processor: participation to weekly teleconference of the SMOS ESA level 2 ocean team and attending the progress meetings (3 per year). Writing of technical papers and participation to scientific papers is possible, depending on the algorithms improvements.

Required Skills:
-          Physics of satellite measurement
-          Data processing and statistics
-          Knowledge of LINUX and C
-          Matlab and/or Python
-          Autonomy and team collaborative working

Welcome Skills:
-          Optimization for huge data processing
-          Interest for environmental science

Level: Research Engineer (PhD thesis or equivalent)

Address : LOCEAN, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Tour 45-55, 5E, 4, place Jussieu, 75005 PARIS, FRANCE.

Salary : about € 1900 net, commensurable with qualification and experience of the candidate (CNRS salary grid)

Candidates should send a statement of interest, CV and coordinates of 2 referees to  Jacqueline Boutin (jb@locean-ipsl.upmc.fr) and Nicolas Martin (martin@locean-ipsl.upmc.fr).

Vacancy : Researcher in Ocean Remote Sensing and Water Cycle

Category : Ocean, position opening

job position-ifremer1

Ifremer, through its research work and expert advice, contributes to knowledge of the oceans and their resources, to monitoring of marine and coastal environments and to the sustainable development of marine activities. To these ends, Ifremer conceives and operates tools for observation, experimentation and monitoring, and manage the oceanographic databases.
Created in 1984, Ifremer is a public institute of an industrial and commercial nature (EPIC). It is supervised jointly by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy. Within Ifremer, the Laboratory of Oceanography from Space (LOS) is seeking to appoint a Researcher to reinforce is major role and expertise for the production, validation and scientific exploitation of the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) data obtained from several satellite missions such as SMOS, Aquarius, potentially SMAP and AMSR-2. LOS develops closed partnerships with the French scientific community, also collaborating with international partner organisations (ESA, CNES, NASA, EUMETSAT,..) in the frame of several national and international projects, including contractual activities.
The LOS includes a research and data processing team to gain a better knowledge of the ocean from various observations. This group gathers technicians, engineers and researchers to conduct analyses, algorithm development, processing and distribution of elaborated geophysical products derived from the combination of in situ and satellite observations, such as surface winds, surface waves, currents, surface temperature and salinity, sea ice characteristics, …
The satellite missions to estimate sea surface Salinity are rather new with the first launch end 2009 for the ESA SMOS mission. These new datasets still demand a strong expertise in both passive microwave remote sensing and ocean surface physics. A thematic exploitation platform dedicated to ocean surface salinity is currently under development to aim at fostering the scientific use of both satellite and in situ SSS observations, complemented and used synergistically with observations from numerous other Earth observation instruments (temperature, altimetry, scatterometry, optical and ocean color properties, precipitation,..).
The successful researcher will contribute to improve our understanding of the dynamical processes responsible for the variability of the SSS fields associated with the global water cycle. Research themes are open to different aspects on specific physical processes (vertical mixing at small scale, meso-scale horizontal transport, air-sea interactions, Evaporation minus Precipitation or river run off fluxes, mixed layer and haline stratification, etc..) or/and focus on key geographic zones (oceanic basins, marginal seas, river run off, Tropical Cyclone area, polar regions..). The researcher will develop analyses based on existing in situ and satellite data but will also consider the potential combination with new and future missions observations (Sentinel-1 and 3, SMAP launched since january 2015, CFOSAT with a foresseen launch in December 2017, or SWOT in 2020).
As principal activities, the researcher will have to:
• Undertake studies on the signatures of the global water cycle and its variability in ocean surface salinity,
• Exploit the complementarities between in situ and satellite observations characterizing the upper ocean salinity,
• Participate to the definition and exploitation of future and new observations (combined exploitation, SMOS follow on, GNSS-R, …), and of new measurement protocols,• Identify new fields of applications involving the combined use of observations characterizing the coupled atmosphere/ocean/land/ice system.

More details here

job position-ifremer

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