Dozens of landslides after the 2018 Hokkaido earthquake

An earthquake with magnitude 6.7 occurred on 06 Sep 2018 in Hokkaido, Japan, killing at least 17 people and leaving nearly 3 million households in Hokkaido without electricity.
 
The quake came two days after typhoon Jebi, "the strongest storm of 25 years".
 
Below is an image comparison near Atsuma dam lake in the south of Hokkaido, before and after the earthquake, showing multiple landslides in the forest areas. Both images were acquired by Sentinel-2 and are shown as false color composites of bands 11-8-2. Click here to view a larger version.
 

 
The heavy rainfalls brought by typhoon Jebi probably explain why the earthquake triggered so many landslides. I would like to count the landslides in this area, but the Sep 15 image is not yet available in my favorite image processing engine. I will check later.
 


 
Links:
- in the AGU landslide blog
- Google published a crisis map but it seems that the imagery is not publicly available
 
Thanks to Laurent Longuevergne for letting me know about this!

A seamless and cloudless Sentinel-2 image of France in July 2018

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UPDATE: resolution improved to 20m !
 
I had to tinker a couple of days with Theia's Sentinel-2 monthly syntheses, in order to produce the mosaic below. For that, I used:

  • monthly syntheses of Sentinel-2 L3A products delivered by Theia in July 2018; this products are made from Level2A products, corrected from atmospheric effects, and provided with a good cloud mask, thanks to MAJA processor. Such L3A products will be delivered every month.
  • a script developed by Simon Gascoin
  • good advice from Simon and Michel Le Page
  • and Gdal, (Thanks Gdal !)

This mosaic best resolution is 20m. It is already requiring 8 GB. We could have provided it at 10m resolution, but it would have required 32 GB and several dozens of hours of computation.


See it full screen

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La France sans nuages et sans coutures, vue par Sentinel-2 et Theia

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UPDATE: résolution améliorée à 20m !

Voilà, après quelques jours de bidouille, j'ai réussi à produire la mosaïque de la France à partir:

  • des synthèses mensuelles de produits Sentinel-2 de Niveau 3A fournis par Theia en juillet 2018; Ces produits sont réalisés à partir de données de niveau 2A, corrigé des effets atmosphériques, et avec une bonne détection des nuages, grâce à la chaîne MAJA. Ces données seront produites tous les mois
  • du script mis au point par Simon Gascoin
  • des conseils avisés de Simon et de Michel Le Page
  • et de Gdal, (Merci Gdal !)

La mosaïque vous est présentée à 20m de résolution, elle occupe déjà 8GO. Il aurait été possible de la produire à 10m, mais il aurait fallu 32 GO et quelques dizaines d'heures de plus.

Voir en plein écran

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Sentinel-2 captured a jökulhlaup in Afghanistan

In the Landslide blog Dave Petley has analyzed Planet images of the Pashgor debris flow in Afghanistan (here and here). Here I used two Sentinel-2 images (before and after the event) to show the path of the debris flow from the high mountain area to the Panjshir Valley. Sentinel-2 images have a lower spatial resolution than Planet images but they have a larger swath and the near-infrared channel is useful to highlight the water-rich surfaces (dark blue) and the vegetation (red). Also, Sentinel-2 images are free to use for everyone.

According to the experts this event can be called a jökulhlaup since it was due to the abrupt collapse of a supraglacial lake, i.e. a lake formed on the surface of a glacier, in this case a debris-covered glacier. The debris flow (a mix of water and debris) has traveled 13 km from the source to the deposit area where it has dammed the Panjshir river.

Belgium at 10 m resolution in July 2018

Using the new L3A product in Theia it is possible to make nice cloud-free mosaics from Sentinel-2 imagery. Here is an example for Belgium and the script to do it in your terminal.

 

Click here to view in full screen.
 


# download L3A images over Belgium
python theia_download.py -l 'Belgium' -d 2018-07-01 -f 2018-07-31 --level LEVEL3A -a config_theia.cfg
# unzip using GNU parallel
parallel unzip ::: SENTINEL2X_201807*zip
# make a mosaic of each band
# WARNING only works if all images have the same projection otherwise an extra step is required with gdalwarp
parallel gdalbuildvrt {}.vrt SENTINEL2X_201807*/*{}*.tif ::: B2 B3 B4
# stack the band mosaics
gdalbuildvrt -separate B432.vrt B4.vrt B3.vrt B2.vrt
# export as a RGB image at full resolution
gdal_translate -ot Byte -scale 0 2000 B432.vrt B432.tif
# Optionally clip the image using the polygon of the Belgium borders

gdalwarp -dstnodata 0 -q -cutline Belgium.kml -crop_to_cutline B432.tif B432_Belgium.tif
# make a tiled map to display in a browser
gdal2tiles.py -z 6-12 B432_Belgium.tif

 

NB) I used this command to generate the file Belgium.kml from the Eurostat Countries datasets:


ogr2ogr -f KML Belgium.kml -where "NAME_ENGL='Belgium'" CNTR_RG_01M_2016_4326.shp

Whitewhashing the Plastic Sea near Almería

Almería province in Spain is "one of the most recognisable spots on the planet from the lens of a passing satellite. The roofs of tens of thousands of closely packed plastic greenhouses form a blanket of mirrored light beaming into space." (The Guardian).

True color image Sentinel-2 on 22 Aug 2018

Greenhouses in Almería are typically made with transparent plastic to increase the air temperature near the crops. This enables to boost the yield and to harvest earlier than in open field. However, in summer, the temperature increases too much and must be reduced to maintain more suitable conditions for plant growth. Natural ventilation is generally not sufficient to evacuate the heat during sunny days. Therefore, the farmers cover the roofs of the greenhouses with white painting to reduce the incoming solar radiation (Baille et al. 2001). This operation is called blanqueo in Spanish.

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Les conséquences de la sécheresse de l'an dernier en Provence sont toujours visibles en 2018 sur les images de Sentinel-2

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En rentrant de nos vacances dans les Alpes, nous avons passé une journée près des gorges du Verdon, le grand Canyon européen (je sais, il y a une différence d'échelle avec l'Américain).  Ceci dit, le paysage était superbe, comme vous pouvez le voir dans le panorama ci-dessous.

Panorama depuis le "point sublime" (et modeste)

 

 

Mais ne vous inquiétez pas, je ne vais pas vous parler ici de mes aventures estivales, je réserve cela pour les collègues à l'heure du repas, et je pense que les deux premiers de la semaine leur ont suffi.

 

Allons au fait, j'ai par la même occasion remarqué un grand nombre de pins desséchés, voire morts, ce qui m'a étonné parce que la région a été relativement humide ce printemps et début d'été. J'ai demandé au gens du coin, qui m'ont dit que c'est la sécheresse de l'été et l'automne 2017 en Provence qui en est la cause, particulièrement dans les zones où la roche est juste sous la surface et la profondeur du sol est très faible..

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Sentinel-2 sees a persistent degradation of forests near the Gorges du Verdon, after 2017 drought

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Coming back from our stay in the Alps, we stayed one day near the Verdon Gorges, the European Grand Canyon (I know there is a difference in scale with the American one). Anyway, the landscape was gorgeous as you can seen on the panorama below.

Panorama from "Sublime point" (and modest)

 

 

But don't worry, I will not tell you about all my holidays adventures, I keep that for my close colleagues at lunch time, and it seems they have had enough of it with the two past days.

 

Let's go to the point, I also noticed quite a number of brown pine trees, which surprised me as the spring and summer had been rather wet for the region so far. I asked some locals who told me it was due to the severed drought that happened last year in Provence, which happened during summer and fall 2017 and damaged mainly the pine forest, particularly where the soil root zone is thin due to the presence of rock.

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