[MUSCATE news] Two new sites added to Sentinel-2 L2A production : Lebanon and Telangana (India)

After a very difficult period, and thanks to the installation of new improvements MUSCATE ground segment is back in shape, and margins have been found to add new sites.

Number of L2A products produced every day.


We have added two new zones where Sentinel-2 data are processed to Level 2A, which provide surface reflectance after atmospheric correction and a good quality cloud mask, tanks to MAJA processor. These two sites are Lebanon and Telangana region in India. The data are processed in near real time, since May 2018, and we will later on add the acquired before that date.
As usual, the data are available for download from https://theia.cnes.fr

[Venµs news] Distribution of Level2A has started

You might have noticed the apparition of the first Venµs L2A products on Theia web site within the real time production, since last Friday.  A first global processing will start this summer, to provide you with the data acquired from November until now. There will be probably further reprocessings to benefit from the fine tuning of all the parameters and to propagate the further evolution of Level 1 improvement.

Even if it took us a few months to check the software and set the parameters up, what took us very long... was waiting for the level 1 validation and calibration phase. As you know, our colleagues from CNES did a great work to rescue the Venµs raw data which were full of surprises. They started to provide us with calibrated products in April only, and that's when we started the validation.


We were quite happy with the first results, as our processor MAJA did not show any bug, and the first images looked good.  But the first validation results were quite poor, with undetected thin clouds, with biases in the estimates of atmospheric properties (Aerosol, water vapour), as well as biases in reflectances (with a lot of negative values). We then started iterating tests on the parameters, and after several iterations we corrected several errors in the parameters (Venµs band numbers are different from those of Sentinel-2, and in a couple of cases, I forgot to change them:( ), and we tuned better all the thresholds. Among those, we had to change the calibration of band 910 band by 6% (this band is hard to calibrate in flight due to the presence of water vapour and is also affected by some newly discovered stray light).



The following table compares the results we had initially, on the left, and the results obtained after tuning the parameters, on the right. Of course, what we distribute is on the right ! We will of course need to increase the number of validation points, and we expect that the low level stray light in band 910 that was discovered during the commissioning phase and is not yet corrected will introduce some site related bias in the water vapour estimates. We will therefore need a reprocessing after this defect has been fixed, if the Level 1 team finds a way to fix it. And finally, we have still some issues to solve with the shadows mask which can often be quite poor.



Before tuning After Tuning

RGB Quicklook with cloud mask contour

RGB Quicklook with cloud mask contour

Water vapour in g/cm2 compared with Aeronet

Water vapour in g/cm2 compared with Aeronet

Aerosol Optical Thickness compared with Aeronet (sorry for the scale different from that on the right)

Aerosol Optical Thickness compared with Aeronet (sorry for the scale different from that on the left)

Slides and conclusions of the MAJA/Theia worskhop

The Theia workshop for Sentinel-2 L2A MAJA products was held in Toulouse on the 13th and 14th of June 2018.


Attendance on the 13th of June


About 80 people participated either on the 13th or 14th, and nearly 70 participants attended each day of  this workshop,  whose object was to collect feedback and share experiences on the quality, use and applications of the L2A surface reflectance products delivered by Theia from Sentinel-2 data.


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[Venµs News] L1C processor upgraded to V1.0



Until V0.9, only a small proportion of Venµs L1C data were available at L1C level on Theia's website: 888 products only in 2 months.

Until V0.9, only a small proportion of Venµs L1C data were available at L1C level on Theia's website. Now, with the version V1.0, a greater proportion of products will be distributed to users, but we advise users to check their geometric quality in the metadata, as explained below.


Distribution of V1.0 products should start very soon !


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Three snow seasons in the Pyrenees through the eyes of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8

On June 23 we will celebrate the third anniversary of Sentinel-2A in orbit. With three years of data we can start looking at the inter-annual variability of biophysical variables, like.. (random example), the snow cover.


This is what I attempted to do for the Theia workshop. I downloaded all available snow cover products from Theia over the Central Pyrenees (tile 31TCH) and I generated additional snow maps from the Theia Landsat-8 level-2A products using let-it-snow processor. Landsat-8 images enable to increase the frequency of observations when only Sentinel-2A was operational between 2015 to 2017.


I resampled the Landsat-8 snow maps to the same reference grid as Sentinel-2 at 20 m resolution using the nearest neighbor method. I cropped all snow maps to the intersection of the Sentinel-2 tile (green polygon) and Landsat-8 tile (red polygon).

When there was a snow map from Sentinel-2 (S2) and Landsat-8 (L8) on the same day, I merged them into a composite using a simple pixel-based rule:
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La vectorisation du produit OSO, comment ça marche ?

Le produit vecteur d'OSO 2017 est enfin sorti ! Après plusieurs semaines de traitements, les vecteurs de chaque département sont disponibles ici. La production requiert la mobilisation d'une grande quantité de ressources de calcul et une stratégie de traitements un peu particulière. Nous voulions vous expliquer comment parvient-on à produire cette couche d'information.

Exemple du raster initial (10 m), régularisé (20m) et vectorisé

A priori, le plus simple serait de prendre la couche raster issue de la chaine de traitements iota² de l'intégrer dans notre logiciel SIG préféré et d'appuyer sur le bouton "Vectorisation" ! Mais les choses ne sont pas si simples, certaines contraintes et besoins nous obligent à quelques tours de passe-passe :

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MAJA/THEIA workshop Program

We have just updated the MAJA/THEIA workshop website to add a draft program. The workshop will be held in Toulouse, from 13th to 14th of June, and will be hosted by the ENSEEIHT engineering school in Toulouse historical center. Registrations are still open, until the third of June.




The aim of this workshop is to collect feedback and share experiences on the quality, use and applications of the L2A surface reflectance products delivered by Theia from Sentinel-2 data.
The meeting objectives are as follows :

  • to provide information about L2A product status and validation
  • to gather feedback from users about L2A product quality
  • to show applications and results of L2A Sentinel-2 time series
  • to share experiences on how to use the products
  • to collect suggestions for improvements.

We look forward to meeting you soon !

The organising Comittee (Arnaud Sellé, Olivier Hagolle, Céline Arnal)

Are Sentinel-2 water vapour products useful ?

Atmospheric absorption: in blue, the surface reflectance of a vegetation pixel, as a function of wavelength. In red, the reflectance of the same pixel at the top of atmosphere. For a wavelength of 1.38 µm, water vapour totally absorbs the light that comes from the earth surface at sea level. At 0.94 µm (940nm), a weaker water vapour absorption band only partly absorbs the photons.


Sentinel-2B has two channels centered on water vapour absorption bands: channel 9 (940 nm) and channel 10 (1380 nm). Band 10 corresponds to a very strong absorption, strong enough to prevent any photon to reach ground from the Sun without being absorbed in the atmosphere. This band is intensively used to detect and correct high clouds.


In this blog, we discussed much less band 9 (940 nm) yet. Here, water vapour absorption is not strong enough to catch all the photons which reach the surface. The proportion of absorbed photons depends on the water vapour atmospheric content, and also on the viewing and solar zenith angles. We use band 9 for atmospheric correction, but it could be useful to study convection phenomena within the atmosphere too.

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MAJA V3.1 will be distributed this May

Example of cirrus cloud correction

We will start distributing MAJA V3.1 this May to replace MAJA V1 on CNES free software platform.


It is also in the pipeline of enhancements of Theia processing platform (MUSCATE), but this pipeline is quite full, so we will need to be patient (which requires a big effort for me, patience not being my best quality...)


MAJA V3 comes with a lot of enhancements compared to V1 :

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