Our blog's audience in 2018

A seventh year begins for the "Séries temporelles" blog, and as usual, it is an opportunity to review its audience, and to get a little self-satisfaction. We usually publish this post early January, but it seems there was no January this year (or was I too busy ?). The blog is still receiving more visits every year, with a sharp growth this year : +35% of visits ...

Blog traffic from December 2012 to January 2019

Blog traffic from December 2012 to January 2019 (the trends were computed using the Theil–Sen estimator), computed by Simon Gascoin.

So, if we look at the trends on the plots above, the audience growth is remarkably linear, but if we sum-up everything per year, we see a sharp increase. The cause is that outlier in the top-right corner or each graph above, related to a big buzz in Japan for SImon's article about Xe-Namnoy lake dam failure in July, that flooded several villages, and killed too many people.


2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Number of visits 13985 22928 34723 47773 57692 79243
Number of viewed pages 30922 46940 66947 89555 105846 131846


French visitors only counted for 25% of visits, much less than the other years. Japan ranked second with 16%,  United States ranked third, followed by European countries (UK, Germany, Italy, Spain) and by India, Canada and Morocco.

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4 thèses en cours à Toulouse pour étudier les forêts tempérées par télédétection

Le pôle toulousain de recherche publique en télédétection est surtout connu sur la thématique forestière grâce à la mission BIOMASS, qui sera lancée vers 2021 et qui est portée par le CESBio, mais qui concerne surtout les forêts tropicales. L’objectif de cet article est de présenter les travaux en cours sur les forêts tempérées, dans le contexte de la France métropolitaine, qui sont portées en synergie par l’UMR Dynafor (collègues INRA, Ensat et EI Purpan) et par l’UMR CESBio. En effet, 4 thèses sont actuellement en cours dont 2 qui seront soutenues fin 2019. Le point commun à ces 4 thèses comme aux travaux qui les ont précédées est l’utilisation de séries temporelles, d’abord basse résolution (Modis), puis, depuis 2015, en haute résolution spatiale avec Sentinel 1 et 2 (‘S1’ et ‘S2’).


Différence de phenologie entre chênes

Figure 1. Différences de phénologie entre espèces de chênes.

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Sentinel-2 Level3A time series (July, August, September 2018)

If you are not afraid to spend too much time while you have urgent things to do, you may have a look to the mosaic of Sentinel-2 monthly syntheses for September over France. You may access to each monthly synthesis using the following links :

Or you may also use the viewer below to compare with the previous months and see how France became brown in September :

See it full screen

The monthly syntheses are produced using the WASP processor, which is described here.

By comparing the various syntheses, you will see the evolution of the landscape, generally much brownler in September, but this representation will also help you spot the composite artefacts. These are not very numerous, but you will see them :

  • on some web browsers (firefox V58), geometrical differences appear even at a low resolution. Other browsers and versions do not have this defect. It is really not due to Sentinel-2 or Theia products
  • above water and snow (we must work on this defect)
  • where clouds have covered a place during the whole month of July or August. These pixels are flagged as invalid in the products (but not on the mosaic).
  • where clouds or shadows were not properly detected by MAJA
  • at the edges of Sentinel-2 swath. For the first time, in october, a swath edge is clearly visible near Cambrai. The area must have been quite cloudy, and we observe here a greener part on the right, observed later in October, that the browner part on the left. The only way to correct this kind of atefact while keeping a physical meaning to the reflectances, would be to improve Sentinel-2 revisit time
  • some tile edges in July, due to the fact that Level 3A products were not all generated for the 15th of July, but for dates between the 8th and the 26th. This has been corrected for the next months


Three snow seasons in the Pyrenees through the eyes of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8

On June 23 we will celebrate the third anniversary of Sentinel-2A in orbit. With three years of data we can start looking at the inter-annual variability of biophysical variables, like.. (random example), the snow cover.


This is what I attempted to do for the Theia workshop. I downloaded all available snow cover products from Theia over the Central Pyrenees (tile 31TCH) and I generated additional snow maps from the Theia Landsat-8 level-2A products using let-it-snow processor. Landsat-8 images enable to increase the frequency of observations when only Sentinel-2A was operational between 2015 to 2017.


I resampled the Landsat-8 snow maps to the same reference grid as Sentinel-2 at 20 m resolution using the nearest neighbor method. I cropped all snow maps to the intersection of the Sentinel-2 tile (green polygon) and Landsat-8 tile (red polygon).

When there was a snow map from Sentinel-2 (S2) and Landsat-8 (L8) on the same day, I merged them into a composite using a simple pixel-based rule:
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La vectorisation du produit OSO, comment ça marche ?

Le produit vecteur d'OSO 2017 est enfin sorti ! Après plusieurs semaines de traitements, les vecteurs de chaque département sont disponibles ici. La production requiert la mobilisation d'une grande quantité de ressources de calcul et une stratégie de traitements un peu particulière. Nous voulions vous expliquer comment parvient-on à produire cette couche d'information.

Exemple du raster initial (10 m), régularisé (20m) et vectorisé

A priori, le plus simple serait de prendre la couche raster issue de la chaine de traitements iota² de l'intégrer dans notre logiciel SIG préféré et d'appuyer sur le bouton "Vectorisation" ! Mais les choses ne sont pas si simples, certaines contraintes et besoins nous obligent à quelques tours de passe-passe :

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[MUSCATE] Theia releases Sentinel-2 L2A products on the whole Maghreb coastal region

The blue tiles were just added to the zones where Theia provides level 2A products with MAJA.


Since we understood the bugs which were slowing MUSCATE, and we found ways to mitigate them, the production rhythm of MUSCATE improved and we were able to extend the zones where we provide Sentinel-2 (A&B) L2A products. L2A products provide surface reflectances after correction of atmospheric effects and with a high quality cloud mask. The products we deliver are provided by MAJA processor.


We just released all the data acquired on the Maghreb coastal zone, from Morocco to Tunisia. A few missing tiles have also been added in South Morocco, and on Cap Bon in Tunisia. With these new tiles, we now monitor all the lands that surround the occidental part of Mediterranean sea, adding 50 tiles to those already processed.

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From Multitemp blog to Nature Geoscience

You probably remember Simon Gascoin's story about the Aru glacier avalanches, which started from Simon's observations of the twin avalanches using the Sentinels. It was one of the big buzz pages of the blog in 2016. The first images were published here, then spread out in many scientific websites and the social networks.


The same mountain valley in Tibet is shown before and after part of a glacier sheared off on 17 July 2016. Credit: NASA/Joshua Stevens/USGS/ESA

It seems that the story finally made its way to Nature Geoscience, after a large work from many scientists lead by Andreas Kaab.  Congratulations to all the team !


So, dear CESBIO colleagues, or remote sensing time series users, it is time to submit your work to this blog as a first step to future publications in Nature ;) !



Our blog's audience in 2018


A sixth year begins for the "Séries temporelles" blog, and as usual, it is an opportunity to review its audience, and to get a little self-satisfaction.

The blog is always receiving more visits. even if the annual growth rate is much lower than the previous years, but still 20%... French visitors constitute only 35% of visits. The United States rank second, followed by Morocco, which is probably an effect of CESBIO's long presence in Marrakesh. Then come France neighbouring countries.


2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Number of visits 13985 22928 34723 47773 57692
Number of viewed pages 30922 46940 66947 89555 105846

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