The Ebro (Iberus in Latin) flows into the Mediterranean in Catalonia after a journey of more than 900 km from its source in Cantabria. The current morphology of the Delta results from the significant increase in sediment inputs caused in the 15th century by the intensive deforestation of the river catchment: the conquest of the Americas required the construction of boats. It was at this time that the land emerged over the sea, making the delta this wide plain of which only 10% of the land culminates at more than 2 meters. The construction since 1930 of 187 upstream dams reduces the sediment flow (from 28 Mt / year to about 0.1 Mt / year), which partly explains the erosion currently observed in some parts of the delta.
80% of the area of the delta is devoted to crops, mostly rice producing one-third of the country's production. The rest, protected by the Natural Park, consists of lagoons, reed and rush beds, brackish marshes and sandbanks.
The Delta de l'Ebre is included in one of the sites that will be observed by Venμs every two days for two and a half years. It is part of ClimaDat, a long-term climate research network. Different issues will be adressed: land use, phenology, greenhouse gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O), vegetation productivity, role of saline inputs.
Complement: the evolution of the Ebro delta from the 4th century: